The primary purpose of the project - studying the influence of the structured state of metals and alloys on the processes of their interaction with hydrogen. The researches were conducted in two directions.
The first direction of the work was studying of the influence of the structured condition metal on their interaction with hydrogen. The methods of the production of clear hydride created metal (zirconium, titanium, hafnium) in nanocrystal state were developed. The zirconium with grains less than 100 nm were received first time by the methods of intensive plastic deformation. Formed nanocrystal state is characterized not only ultra-low grainsize, but also exceedingly high level of the internal stress, as well as high concentration of vacancy near the borders. The characteristic of the interaction between nanocrystal metal and hydrogen were studied. On example clean zirconium is developed that in comparable to usual poly crystal or macrocrystalline state, nanocrystal metals begin to absorb the hydrogen under vastly lower temperature. The kinetics of the absorption of the hydrogen accelerated too. These characteristic related to the big amount of nonequilibrium borders in nanocrystal zirconium, on which the hydride is formed in the first place. It is installed experimentally that energy of activations for three-dimensional diffusion of the hydrogen in zirconium UH = 0.52 e, but energy of activations of diffusions on grainborders, on which hydride phase is located, significantly less Uhydr = 0.16 e. In such situation big amount of hydrogen migrates on grain borders. The influence of the hydrogen on electrophysical and mechanical features specified above metal was studied also.
The Second direction was a creation alloys with extreme structure by the method of fast quenching from melt and studying of the processes of the interaction such material with hydrogen. The binary alloys Zr-V, Zr-Nі,, triple alloys Tі-Zr-Nі and more complex alloys on base of the system Zr-Tі-Mn-Fe were studied. It is determined the dependency of the phase composition, structures, tense condition and some physical characteristic for Tі-Zr-Nі alloy from element composition and it is found optimum parameters of the syntheses single-phase icosahedral quasicrystals which is perspective for hydrogen accumulation. The Zr-V, Zr-Nі, Zr-Tі-Mn-Fe alloys were received in nanostructured and quasiamorphous state, and their phase composition and parameters of the crystalline structure was founded. The influence of the composition and structured condition on processes of the interaction these material with hydrogen was researched. So, the fact that in system Zr-V maximum hydrogen capacity (near 300 cm3/g) and the most convenient temperatures of sorption - and desorption of the hydrogen has evtectic alloy Zr0,6V0,4 was found. It is shown that in material with extreme structured condition significantly improves the kinetics of the saturation material by hydrogen and processes of its desorption.
Keywords: Hydrogen, hydrogen accumulator, zirkonium, Zr-V alloys, Zr- NI alloys, Ti-Zr-Ni alloys, Zr-Ti-Mn-Fe alloys, state of structure, phase composition, interaction between hydrogen and alloys