For the purpose of obtaining of novel highly-effective sorbents of hydrogen, the synthetic methods have been designed, and a number of new prospective carbonaceous and metal-carbonaceous matrices were synthesized. They are as modified nitrates of graphite, thermo-expanded graphites, synthetic carbonaceous and metal-carbonaceous clustered materials, and active-carbon-based sorbents modified by different metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr).
The laboratory unit has been built and the technique for determination of hydrogen sorption within the obtained materials was worked out. For the obtained carbonaceous and metal-carbonaceous materials, their composition and structure were investigated as well as their physicochemical properties and the ability for absorption of molecular hydrogen.
Synthetic carbonaceous and metal-carbonaceous clustered materials have well over sorption capacity (0.18 - 0.59 %) than notorious carbon sorbents. Unexpectedly high level of hydrogen sorption (more than 1%) has been found for active carbon modified by transition metals. The highest level of hydrogen sorption of 3.0% (77K, 1 atm) is observed for the sorbent, which was obtained by thermolysis of brown coal in presence of alkali.
In order to identify the possibility of utilization of the sorbents in motor transport, further investigations are necessary to determine both sorbents cyclic durability, which must be no less than 5000 cycles, and sorptive properties of obtained sorbents under increased pressure.
The value of work consists of creation of highly efficient hydrogen sorbents that can be the base for obtaining of compact, high-energy, and environment-friendly energy sources, particularly for vehicles of future.
Keywords: Hydrogen, sorbent, graphite intercalation compounds, nanocarbonic and metallocarbonic materials.