The processes of carbonization of clean crushed and crushed wood after impregnation by 0.5% water solution of H3PO4, FeCl3, and CaCl2 and drying under modes of carbonization both with and without the use of combustion heat of volatiles are studied. Increased yield of wood coal (32%) with high content of fixed carbon (83%) is obtained from the pre-impregnated crushed birch waste by the solution of 0.5 % H3PO4. The possibility to increase the yield of wood coal by 12.8-20.9 % is shown by example of birch waste sawdust carbonization. The wood coal obtained from the crushed birch impregnated with 0.5 % water solution of H3PO4 was gasified at Fuel Cell Test Installation. The minimal concentration of CO in the obtained dry gas (2.1-4.4 vol. %) is reached through the use of conversion catalyst of CO (MCC-2.4) and lime. Technical hydrogen is obtained at the outlet of the installation at temperatures in the layer of wood coal from 660 to 757 oC. The process of carbon dioxide absorption by Ca(OH)2 is studied. The obtained wood coal has greater reactivity than coal coke and medical activated charcoal.
The result of impregnation of spruce waste and walnut shell samples with 0.5% water solution of Н3PO4 and their carbonization was an increase in yield of wood coal by 7.1% and 19.3%, respectively. The synthesis gas containing up to 76.4 vol. % of hydrogen was obtained and 47.08% of the carbon, reacted with steam in the bed of wood, was removed as a result of steam gasification of spruce wood coal using lime at the temperature of 760 to 790 °C. The synthesis gas containing up to 78.4 vol. % of hydrogen was obtained and 38.2% of the carbon, reacted with water steam in the bed of wood, was removed as a result of steam gasification of wood coal, produced from walnut shell, using lime at the temperature of 800 to 850 °C. The dependence of the rate of calcium hydroxide decomposition on heating temperature was determined, a new method to fall out nickel into the space inside the pores of wood coal was tested, the composition of hydrogen briquettes is determined, and the dependence of hydrogen yield on the molar ratio of Ni/C are obtained. Birch wood coal was used to obtain technical hydrogen and activated charcoal with inside surface of 1,023.5 m2/g in the process of steam gasification using lime and catalyst MCC-2.4 for CO conversion at the temperature of 650-825 °C. A new principal circuit of cogeneration IGCC power plant was developed. Forecast assumptions about the development of the object of research - test of conversion technologies using other biomass waste, modernization of existing facilities, creation of new clean solid fuels.
Keywords: Hydrogen, biomass, wood waste, lime, steam gasification, carbonization