A project is dedicated to development of ecologically clean technology and making of equipment for hydrogen generation by plasma chemical decomposition of hydrocarbonic substances in the low temperature plasma of streamer gas discharge and also development and making of a metal hydride system for gathering, compression, activation and safe storage of hydrogen generated due to conversion of hydrogen-containing compounds.
Universality of the plasma chemical and metal hydride technology offered extends its application limits. The technology can be used for waste utilization in petroleum, petrochemical, food and other branches of industry, and also for utilization of phosphorous-, fluorinic, clorinic compounds (for example, freons, compounds of heptyl type, pesticides, etc.). In addition, the technology offered can be applied to accelerate processes of pyrolysis and conversion of carbon containing compounds into fuel-air mixtures with the emission of high-reactionary fuel - hydrogen that initiates burning and reduces toxicity of combustion products.
In the course of the project on the basis of the theoretical research a prototype for hydrogen generation was made by plasma chemical conversion of hydrocarbonic waste. The installation includes a reactor, a system of electrodes, a unit of hydrogen emission from gas mixture, electric power package and a system of intake and outlet pipelines with suitable lock and regulative accessories, and also a diagnostics system of products of plasma chemical reactions. The experimental research was conducted. It demonstrated that application of low temperature plasma in the plasma chemical reactor for activation of chemical processes, and namely, use of barrierless gas discharge for direct excitation of oscillatory and rotational levels of molecules, makes it possible to conduct chemical reactions effectively at low temperatures, without additional heating that substantially increases selectivity and reduces power inputs on chemical reactions. It was shown by way of example of methanol, ethanol, isooctane and dichloroethane that hydrocarbons of different structure including halogenic ones were oxidized effectively in the barrierless gas discharge. At this, efficiency of oxidization of hydrocarbons and degree of conversion increase with rise of the input power. Recommendations to increase efficiency of plasma chemical treatment of hydrogen-containing gases were worked out on the basis of research results.
In addition, the experimental study of thermosorptional characteristics of a number of hydride-forming material was conducted, prototype experiments on effect of gas admixtures on working characteristics of metal hydrides were conducted, a functional diagram of the metal hydride system for hydrogen processing was worked out. As a possibility to obtain thermodynamical and nonequilibrium concentration of excited (activated) particles over the surface of the decomposing hydride was of interest from the point of view of numerous technological applications, then to determine optimal modes of the metal hydride system for hydrogen activation, the theoretical research of interaction of hydrogen and model metal hydride systems was conducted, the quantitative estimation of values of excess energy per each hydrogen molecule near the surface was made. A series of experimental research of thermosorptional effect of formation of the activated hydrogen was conducted.
Keywords: HYDROGEN, PLASMA CHEMISTRY, NONEQUILIBRIUM PLASMA, BARRIERLESS DISCHARGE, HYDROCARBON CONVERSION, HYDRIDE-FORMING MATERIAL, METAL HYDRIDE, ACTIVATION