The inevitable depletion of liquid hydrocarbon deposits, environmental pollution with carbon, sulfur, heavy-metal oxides on burning hydrocarbon fuel and with radioactive thorium, as well as periodically arising energy crises, which are followed by continuous rush of world prices for oil, oil products and natural gas, destroyed the idea of stable economy and became a norm of our life.
The solution of these problems consists in the wide use of hydrogen, which is, as a matter of fact, the only eco-friendly energy carrier, i.e. in change-over from hydrocarbon to hydrogen power engineering (HPE). Hydrogen has a unique set of properties, which determine its wide use in various industries. About 95% of hydrogen is used as a reagent in the chemical and petrochemical industries, in the manufacture of ammonia (52%), in oil reforming and cracking and the hydrofining of engine fuel (38%), in the manufacture of methanol (6%), in the manufacture of hydrochloric and nitric acids, synthetic rubber, polymers, in the hydrogenation of fats, in hydrocarbon synthesis in the hydrogenation of coal (12%), for the manufacture of liquid fuel (4%), etc. Hydrogen production in the world in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 was 60, 72, 83 and 95.6 million t.
Therefore, the most important problem of HPE is hydrogen production on an industrial scale and economically profitable storage and use of hydrogen. When creating power systems based on the proposed energy-storing substances, e.g. activated aluminum and magnesium, the processes for hydrogen production and storage can be combined in one device, e.g. in a hydrogen sensor (cartridge). In such a sensor, aluminum or magnesium, specially activated to achieve their theoretical reactivity with obtaining energy-storing substances, can act as an energy carrier for hydrogen production. Aluminum and magnesium have unlimited raw-materials resources, and their industrial production has been organized on a wide scale. This method of hydrogen production is fairly convenient.
Purpose of the work: study of the activation of aluminum and magnesium to impart reactivity to them in the reaction of hydrogen evolution from water. Study of the kinetics and mechanism of the interaction of activated aluminum and magnesium with water in the temperature range 473-598 K and the effect of additions of metals-activators of different nature on the rate of the reaction of hydrogen evolution from water in a reactor with automatic monitoring of hydrogen evolution rate and hydrogen pressure rise.