The Institute was founded on September 30, 1955. Its main research areas are millimeter and submillimeter radio physics and electronics; interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids and biological objects; radio wave propagation in the environment; radar sensing of man-made and natural objects.
Principal achievements and developments:
Practical use of millimeter and submillimeter wave ranges was made: fundamental theoretical studies of generation processes were done, mathematical models implemented, series of new radiation sources of millimeter and submillimeter wavebands produced (magnetrons, including those with unique ‘Kharkiv operation’ pulse-mode, klynotrons, reflecting klystrons, unique diffraction-radiation generators). Terahertz waveband is being mastered.
High-performance sources of optical-range electromagnetic waves were developed – dye lasers with controlled stimulated-radiation frequency. Laser-type monochromatic background radiation was discovered and ‘Faser’ coherent-phonon laser oscillator developed.
The renowned Kharkiv diffraction school produced high-performance, mathematically correct semi-inversion methods to solve boundary problems of open-structure electrodynamics.
A novel research trend – quasi-optical radiometry – was mastered and a complex of unique wide-range radio instruments for measuring physical parameters of substances, including plasma, was produced. The complex was introduced in ‘Tokamak’ units to measure physical parameters of high-temperature plasma.
New physical effects were forecast, found and registered as discoveries: cyclotron resonance in metals, abnormal penetration of the electromagnetic field into metals, acoustomagnetoelectric effects in semiconductors. A novel research area was started: plasma studies in semiconductors, wave and oscillation processes, instabilities and nonlinear phenomena.
Studied were electromagnetic properties of metals, semiconductors, dielectrics, metamaterials, bianisotropic media, nanostructures, high-temperature superconducting materials, left-hand media, layer-periodic structures, chiral media and biological objects.
A new research trend was initiated: studies of the physical principles of structure and features of biological macromolecules – proteins and nucleic acids.
A two-scale model of radiowave dispersion by rough sea surface was developed, as well as unique methods and tools for over-the-horizon radiolocation above the sea surface. A new study area – that of radio oceanography – was started and four generations of electrically controlled wide-band antennas produced, the unique UTR-2 radio telescope being among them. Methods and tools for remote acoustic diagnostics of seabed structure were developed and radar atlas of the world ocean produced. Extensive remote-sensing aerospace studies of the Earth natural environment were done.
Ranges of new sources of millimeter and submillimeter wave radiation were introduced in radar systems, communication and military systems. Developed were subsurface radars, including ultrawideband ones and those relying on noise technology.
The building of Usikov IRE of the NAS of Ukraine
National treasure - cryomagnetic radiospectroscopy complex of the millimeter waveband
Man-made satellite "Cosmos-1500"
Quasi-optical measuring complex for research on hot plasma parameters at the "Tokamak" unit