Set up by a joint resolution of the National Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Industrial Policy and Defence Ministry of Ukraine on June 19, 1996.
Its main lines of research activities are:
- elaboration of scientific fundamentals for producing electrode and heat-accumulating materials;
- development of novel devices for conversion and storage of electrochemical, thermoelectric and thermal energy.
Major scientific achievements:
The main tasks of the Department are basic, applied and venture research into electrochemical energy systems, development of new technological processes and devices, pilot production of sample power sources, expert assessment of works in the field.
Considerable attention is given to systemic physical and chemical studies of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries and salt-solvate systems. They consist of a lithium salt and a dipolar aprotic solvent, their characteristic feature being the formation of salt solvates of various structures. The use of such systems in power sources provides high values of specific capacity and a higher cycling efficiency of electrode materials. For the first time, basic characteristics of the dependence of physical and chemical properties of salt-solvate systems on concentration have been determined, viz., negative deviations of molar volume from additive values and an S-shape of molar-conductivity isotherms.
Fundamental research done by the Department determined stability criteria for complex compounds of alkaline metal salts with crown ethers and of salt-solvate compounds. A structure-dynamics criterion of solid state synthesis of anionic solid electrolytes – fluorosulfonates of divalent metals – has also been formulated; relying on it, high conductivity of those salts has been predicted and proved.
Recent studies of electrochemical properties of electrode materials for lithium power sources, performed by the Department, have shown that in the processes of lithium intercalation-deintercalation, amorphous titanium oxide anodes behave like sorption electrodes, while high anode specific capacity (up to 130 mA h/g) indicates the Faradaic type of this process.
The Department has produced and tested prototypes of various lithium ion batteries based on novel electrode materials (lithium spinels, graphites, lithiated titanium oxide etc.). Prototype electrochemical hybrid devices have been developed, which combine properties of a lithium ion battery and a supercapacitor. Actually, they are supercapacitors with internal charging, capable of slow discharge with small currents at stable voltage values, and of multiple pulse discharge within small time intervals. Prototype hybrid devices assembled in aluminium-laminated foil jars have specific energy of 60 W·h/kg and pulse capacity of 1.5 kW/kg, comparable with the best known examples.