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Fundamental problems of hydrogen energy
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Main results 
Novel aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys activated with metals-activators have been developed, which show a high reactivity in the reaction of hydrogen evolution from water at a so far unattained rate; it is thousands and tens of thousands of liters of hydrogen from a square meter of surface per minute for two-, three-, four- and five-component alloys: 1870-2594, 3196-4033, 4936-8459, 2489-15486, 16870-24138 L/m2 min, which is 2-24 times as high as the activity of known aluminum-gallium (Al-Ga) alloys. The distribution of the elements in the bulk of aluminum and magnesium activated with metals-activators has been established by metallographic methods of analysis of the surface of fresh fractures. It has been found that when fabricating aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys with metals-activators, the latter form globules of 2-12 µm size and nanostructured matrices of alloy base. An analysis of the elemental composition of fresh fractures of samples of highly reactive aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys of predetermined composition showed the globules to be rich in magnesium and metals-activators. The phase composition of aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys has been determined by an X-ray phase analysis, and it has been shown that formation of intermetallics on their crystallization is observed. An analysis of products of interaction between highly reactive aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys and water with hydrogen evolution showed that the reaction products are boehmite (AlOOH) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2), and that the metals-activators separate out as a metal phase in the micro- and nanocrystalline state.
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